A - F
The accreditation is an objective measure of quality for a service monitored by a third independent party (e.g. the DAkkS (Deutsche Akkreditierungsstelle – German Accreditation Board).
Acknowlegdement of Paternity
If a child is not borne within a marriage, the possible father can acknowledge paternity voluntarily. This is usually done at a Youth Welfare Office, but may in some cases be decided in court. Paternity is then legally acknowledged even, if the man is not the biological father.
Alleles are different variants of a piece of DNA (locus) on a chromosome. In humans all chromosomes are in pairs. Therefore all humans have two alleles (which may differ or be the same) at each locus. Thus one can have different eye colours. The alleles analysed in a parentage test are usually variable in length.
The alleged father is the man taking part in the test and who is named as the possible father of the child.
„Ausländerbehörde“ (Home Office/ Immigration Office)
In Germany each administration district or city has a “Ausländerbehörde”. The office is responsible for the execution of the „Ausländerrecht“ (immigration law). It checks Visa applications and issue temporary passport documents. Additionally the authority decides if the pre-requisites for a family reunification is given.
Paternity can be divided in three different areas: biological, social and/or juridicial. All three roles can be (and usually are) united in one person. The biological father is the man who sired the child. He does not necessarily have any other affiliations to the child.
Instead of using swabs samples for a DNA test, also so-called EDTA blood can be used. EDTA is an anti-coagulation agent. It is usually already contained in the blood vials and prevents the blood clotting. To extract DNA from clotted blood is difficult.
A buccal swab – commonly called saliva sample- is in fact gained by rubbing the inner side of the cheek with e.g. a cotton swab. Thus gaining cell material from the buccal mucosa. The method of sampling is painless and non-invasive and yields sufficient material for a DNA test
On the chromosomes all genetic information is contained. They are present in the cell nucleus. All humans have 46 chromosomes, 23 from the mother and 23 from the father.
A deficiency case is a test with only one parent and child. (see also trio case)
Determination of Paternity
Paternity determination by DNA testing is based on the number of matches between the different genetic characteristics looked at and their frequency in the population. From the data a paternity probability is calculated. The DNA test for determination of paternity can be done on a voluntarily basis or it is ordered by court. Court-ordered testing has different procedures and it is mandatory to attend the sampling. If one fails to keep the appointment without good reason this may result in legal consequences. It is either the child, the Youth Welfare Office on behalf of the child or one of the parents that can file a law suit.
DNA is the complete genetic information which is located in the cell nucleus and packed into chromosomes. The whole information is determined by only four chemical different parts called “base”. The sequence of the four bases contains all the information necessary to determine all of our features such as eye colour, height, sex etc. DNA is the blueprint of all our features and characteristics. For a DNA test particular parts of the DNA are used. Each human receives half of his genetic information from his mother and the other half from his father. The DNA sections are analysed for matches between child and parent or relation.
A DNA profile is also called “genetic fingerprint”. Like a normal fingerprint it is unique for each individual. The sections of DNA looked at for generating a.profile are usually variants in length and each individual carries its special unique combination of these alleles (see above).
Familiy Reunification is regulated by the „Aufenthaltsgesetz“ (the law for right of residence). The law defines the rules for relatives of permanent residents as well as residents with a temporary permit moving to the country. Aim of the reunification is to restore/ keep the family as a unit.